Find the complete list of news-values below. Click on the image below to see it clearly. Galtung and Ruge, in their seminal study in the area put. One of the best known lists of news values was drawn up by media researchers Johan Galtung and Marie. Holmboe Ruge. They analysed international news. Galtung and Ruge news theories. 1. GALTUNG AND RUGE NEWS VALUES; 2. For any story that appears in the news has to have.

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We go to them and say: This is the future of filmmaking. The audience was able to comment on the site as well as through Facebook. Newspapers are very competitive about breaking news – about revealing stories as they happen.

Galtung and Ruge, in their seminal study in the area put forward a system of twelve factors describing events that together are used as a definition of ‘newsworthiness’. Translated by Richard Nice. Such events suggest singularity and hence scarcity.

News Values

These vary from corruption, race relations, inflation, Islamic banking, social apathy, ethical commerce, pedophilia, government health warnings and so on. But these intermediaries are no longer gatekeepers. Practitioners and scholars seem to agree. Such audience building strategies are in stark contrast to what I describe as independent filmmaking.

The more often something is talked about, the bigger the chance that potential audience galtug will hear about it. Both are the two central national holidays in Malaysia with Independence Day, in particular, being preceded by a lot of political campaigns concerning national unity.

More often than not it is the news values of a particular event that slots it into the number one position but perceptions as regards news values can differ. We just ride on that big wave. Views Read Edit View history. Ruge showed that several factors are consistently applied across a range of news organizations. It must therefore be understood as one aspect of a wider socio-political movement in neww country.


The example of 15Malaysia positively confirms the usefulness of such approach. They then tend to not give away airtime. With this paper, I attempted to make two main contributions to current scholarship.

Editors have a particular target audience in mind. We have people singing songs from the project itself. Valkaama Tim Baumann, is a feature-length no-budget film that, other than the other projects, did not successfully reach a meaningful audience.

Media stories on unemployment.

Galtung and Ruge – News Values: an update by Prof. Galtung () – Galtung-Institut

While Malaysia prides itself as being one nation of different religions and races that are all living peacefully together, racial tensions have grown beneath the surface. Everything you need to create a successful independent film. An earlier and shorter version of this paper has been presented at the ICA Regional Conference in Brisbane and can be found in the conference proceedings pp. Using the Internet for marketing and distribution purposes was still in its infancy and the political climate in Malaysia suited its glatung and message.

Focusing on newspapers and broadcast news, Galtung and Ruge devised a list describing what they believed were significant contributing factors as to how the news is constructed.

News values

As such, it did not just challenge perceptions of life in bews country but also fit the stereotypes and mental scripts of those who were part of this movement. The linguists Monika Bednarek and Helen Caple formulated an interesting constructivist argument about news values, which provides an excellent theoretical framework for this article: These pressures can sometimes lead to bias or unethical reporting.

On the level of the individual valjes opinion leader, a certain filtration process still has to take place. While fulfilling all news value factors is no guarantee for coverage, the concept of news value tries to explain on what basis opinion leaders attempt to serve their audiences.

But cultures do not just constitute themselves through geographical proximity. Such form of transparent communication and filmmaking, of revealing the filmmaking process and the people behind the camera, is quite different from how things are done in the mainstream industry. Forty years on, they found some notable differences, including the rise of celebrity news values and that good news as well as bad news was a significant news value, as well as the newspaper’s own agenda.


This means that when an issue is on the news galtungg, other events concerning the same issue are more likely to be reported as news because they fit the news agenda. While the popular press focused more on human interests, quality papers concentrated on political news. The media will rather report about an event if it meets their expectation — i.

These messages are not only clear but they are indeed messages. It enriched the consumption of a film with contextualising discussions among viewers. Rugf criteria listed above relate quite specifically to the news actors or events that have the potential to neqs reported as news. But what can you contribute to the project?

List of journalism articles. If a news story conforms to the preconceived ideas of those covering it, then it has expectedness as an important news value. InHal Pashler and Gail Heriot published a study showing that perceptions of newsworthiness tend to be contaminated by a political usefulness bias. His research is interested in creative industry entrepreneurship in the digital age E-mail: They are really dependent forms of filmmaking.

Nad are more interested in other people than in galtumg. Even though there are important and widely discussed differences between these groups see Chu,for an overview of the differences between bloggers and journalists from a communication studies perspectiveall of them nevertheless can connect independent filmmakers with potential audiences.

St Andrews Film Studies, pp.