HISTORY OF SULTAN SALAHUDDIN AYUBI IN URDU PDF
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Joseph Stevenson, Rolls Series, London: Rulers of the Ayyubid dynasty.
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He also reported that they intended to attack Medina and remove Muhammad ‘s body. He then fell ill, or was poisoned according to one account.
In retaliation, Saladin twice besieged KerakRaynald’s fortress in Oultrejordainin and According to Abu Shamahe intended to spend the fast of Ramadan in Egypt and then make the hajj pilgrimage to Mecca in the summer. Muslim sources at the time, however, put Saladin in the “baggage of the centre” with orders to lure the enemy into a trap by staging a feigned retreat. After his victory against the Zengids, Saladin proclaimed himself king and suppressed the name of as-Salih in Friday prayers and Islamic coinage.
Imad ad-Din al-Isfahani compiled a list of Saladin’s sons along with their dates of birth, according to information provided by Saladin late in his reign. Several Egyptian emirs were thus killed, but al-Adid was told that they were killed for rebelling against him.
Not long after Nur ad-Din’s death inSaladin launched his conquest of Syria, peacefully entering Damascus at the request of its governor. After establishing himself in Egypt, Saladin launched a campaign against the Crusaders, besieging Darum in The city was held by Surhak, a “minor mamluk. The Battle of Hama did not end the contest for power between the Ayyubids and the Zengids, with the final confrontation occurring in the spring of While transporting these goods to Damascus, Saladin took the opportunity to ravage the Crusader countryside.
A suburban community of ErbilMasif Salahaddin, is also named after him.
He asked for military backing from Nur ad-Din, who complied and, insent Shirkuh to aid Shawar in his expedition against Dirgham. Jerusalem capitulated to his forces on Friday, 2 Octoberafter a siege. Al-Maqrizi added to the rumor by claiming Muhammad’s tomb was going to be relocated to Crusader territory so Muslims would make pilgrimages there.
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He and the bulk of his force withdrew from Alexandria, while Saladin was left with the task of guarding the city. After the sacking of Bilbais, the Crusader-Egyptian force and Shirkuh’s army were to engage in a battle on the desert border of the River Nilejust west of Giza. The agreement was read out through the streets of Jerusalem so that everyone might within forty days provide for himself and pay to Saladin the agreed tribute for his freedom.
The fall of Amid, in addition to territory, convinced Il-Ghazi of Mardin to enter the service of Saladin, weakening Izz al-Din’s coalition. Saladin was later enraged when he received a message from Arslan accusing Nur al-Din of more abuses against his daughter.
In this emergency, the emir of Damascus appealed to Saif al-Din of Mosul a cousin of Gumushtigin for assistance against Aleppo, but he refused, forcing the Syrians to request the aid of Saladin, who complied.
After spending one night in Aleppo’s citadel, Saladin marched to Harim, near the Crusader-held Antioch. With this victory, Saladin decided to call in more troops from Egypt; he requested al-Adil to dispatch 1, horsemen.
Ibn Jubair was told that sixteen Muslim ships were burnt by the Crusaders, who then captured a pilgrim ship and caravan at Aidab. An exchange was negotiated where Zangi would hand over Aleppo to Saladin in return for the restoration of his control of Sinjar, Nusaybin, and Raqqa.
Sultan of Egypt — With Shawar assassinated in and Shirkuh’s natural death later that year, al-Adid appointed Saladin vizier, a rare nomination of a Sunni Muslim to such an important position in the Isma’ili Shia caliphate. He complied and the truce between him and the Zengids officially ended in September This time, Egyptian forces advanced from Aswan and captured the Nubian town of Ibrim. Saladin made further conquests in northern Syria and Jaziraescaping two attempts on his life by the ” Assassins “, before returning to Egypt in to address issues there.
The Crusader force enjoyed early success against Shirkuh’s troops, but the terrain was too steep and sandy for their horses, and commander Hugh of Caesarea was captured while attacking Saladin’s unit. Afterward, in the spring ofNur ad-Din sent Saladin’s father to Egypt in compliance with Saladin’s request, as well as encouragement from the Baghdad -based Abbasid caliph, al-Mustanjidwho aimed to pressure Saladin in deposing his rival caliph, al-Adid.