PDF | Marine actinomycetes were isolated from sediment samples collected from of eight mangrove species of Pitchavaram mangrove ecosystem. Abstract: Mangroves are woody plants located in tropical and subtropical intertidal coastal regions. Driven by the discovery of novel natural products from. We conclude that actinomycetes isolated from mangrove habitats are a Similarly, potent and selective protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.

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Actinobacteria are one of the most important and efficient groups of natural metabolite producers. The genus Streptomyces have been recognized as prolific producers of useful natural compounds as they produced more than half of the naturally-occurring antibiotics isolated to-date and continue as the primary source of new bioactive compounds.

Lately, Streptomyces groups isolated from different environments produced the same types of compound, possibly due to mangtove genetic exchanges between species. As a result, there is a dramatic increase in demand to look for new compounds which have pharmacological properties from another group of Actinobacteriaknown as rare actinobacteria; which is isolated from special environments such as mangrove.

Recently, mangrove ecosystem is becoming a hot spot for studies majgrove bioactivities and the discovery of natural products.

Many novel compounds discovered from the novel rare actinobacteria have been proven as potential new drugs in medical and pharmaceutical industries such as antibiotics, antimicrobials, antibacterials, anticancer, and antifungals. This review article highlights the latest studies on the discovery of natural compounds from the novel mangrove rare actjnomycetes and provides insight on the ;rotiens of these findings. Market demand for new drugs is extremely urgent and extensive due to common ailments and the fast spread of diseases, the development of new diseases with unknown causes, and the spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens Jiang et al.

With the increasing advancement in science and technology, it is predicted that there would actinkmycetes a greater demand for new bioactive compounds synthesized by Actinobacteria from various sources including soil and marine.

Mangrove is a unique woody plant community of intertidal coasts in tropical and subtropical coastal regions. The mangrove forests are among the world’s most productive ecosystems which improves coastal water, produces commercial forest products, supports coastal fisheries, and protects coastlines.

Due to its properties of high salinity, strong winds, extreme tides, high temperature, anaerobic soils, and muddiness; little is known about the bacterial community living in the mangrove especially of Actinobacteria with the potential to produce bioactive metabolites.

According to Das et al. Actinobacteria can be divided into two groups namely, Streptomyces and non- streptomyces or also known as rare actinobacteria. Many studies have found that bioactive compounds of actinobacteria possess a wide range of biological activities. In the late Twentieth Century, some natural products produced by Actinobacteria had been used extensively in clinical settings as antibacterials, antifungals, anticancer, antitumor, and antiparasitics Butler, It is important to discover new natural metabolites to handle the problem of antibiotic-resistant pathogens which are no longer susceptible to the antibiotics available.

However, the recent search for the novel compounds always lead to the rediscovery of known compounds from the same species Koehn and Carter, Currently, the discoveries of new natural metabolites are focusing on non- Streptomyces or rare actinobacteria. Rare actinobacteria are always referred to as strains that are difficult to isolate and might correspond to the unmatched source of new natural metabolites Baltz, The bioactivity studies of natural metabolites from the mangrove rare actinobacteria has become popular.

Compounds discovered from the mangrove rare actinobacteria are uniquely structured and lead directly to the development of novel antibiotics that are effective against antibiotic-resistant pathogens Lam, Mangroves are mostly tropical trees that grow between the high spring tide mark in stable shores, and near mean sea levels Holguin et al.

The important physical features of the mangrove that aid their survival in the boundary zone between ocean and land are adaptations for mechanical fixation in loose soil, specialized dispersal mechanisms, breathing roots and air exchange devices, and specialized mechanisms for dealing with excess salt concentration Spalding et al.

Microbes constitute the largest pool of metabolic pathways on earth with potential biotechnological and environmental implications. The microbial diversity of mangrove ecosystems provides information on their ecological role and unique biotechnological potential in the field of agriculture, industry, medicine, and pharmaceuticals Lageiro et al. The bacterial communities in mangrove environments were firstly determined by Yan et al.

Both studies used molecular cloning and sequencing approaches to understand the diversity of prokaryotes in these environments Andreote, The mangrove ecosystem is a largely unexplored source of Actinobacteria with proties potential to produce active actinomycetees metabolites Hong et al. Although several studies on bacterial productivity and activity within the mangrove ecosystems were conducted, little is known about mabgrove genetic and metabolic diversity. The uncultivated bacteria may serve as a prolific source of new bioactive compounds as they may possess a great diversity of enzymes to be easily adapted to different environmental conditions.


Unlike other strategies used for novel enzyme and microorganism identification, the metagenomic method has clear advantages as an alternative to culture dependent methods. Metagenomics is a culture-independent genomic analysis of bacteria diversity contained in a sample, reducing difficulties related to conditions for bacteria cultivation Handelsman, Metagenomics uses different methods ranging from the generation of short sequence reads by direct use of high-throughput sequencing technologies, to the actinomycetws and sequencing of large-insert DNA libraries Reigstad et al.

Next generation sequencing NGS has significantly increased sequencing output via the use of extremely parallel sequencing Staley et al. The advancement of the next-generation DNA sequencing technologies such as high-throughput pyrosequencing and Illumina platform, increases scientific interests in understanding the microbial diversity in different environments. The study of bacterial communities from soils Jones et al.

High-throughput pyrosequencing is a tool for the analysis of mangrofe microbiome, and reveal the taxonomic diversity of a specific environment at high resolution Zhu et al. This method enables rapid estimation of bacterial diversity and furthermore, provides information about environmental interference. Actinomycets NGS approach enables the discovery of novel enzymes and molecules with potential application in the biotechnology industry Duan and Feng, The NGS technology is known to be costly for the actinonycetes of huge numbers of environmental samples with high sequencing depths Zhou et al.

The application of NGS allows the study of microbial diversity without culturing the bacteria hence, avoiding the loss of unculturable aftinomycetes on laboratory media such as fastidious bacteria. In this study, they showed that the Proteobacteria However, the unclassified bacteria found in this study were clustered as Caldithrix, Haloplasmatales, and phototrophic bacteria.

A study on the profile of bacterial community in different depths of soil in Sundarbans mangrove, India was done by Basak et al.

The taxanomic analysis of species showed that they belong to 33 different phyla such as Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, Actinomycetfsand Actinobacteria. The description of mangrove microbiology has been made on the basis of pyrosequencing, based on DNA extracted directly from the sediment of four distinct mangrove areas along the coast of the Sao Paulo State in Brazil Andreote et al.

Mangrove rare actinobacteria: taxonomy, natural compound, and discovery of bioactivity

The major bacterial phyla identified from this study was Proteobacteria Furthermore, Andreote et al. The metagenomic data from Thompson et al. The major bacterial order discovered protienw Burkholderiales, Caulobacteralesand Rhizobials while the major bacterial phyla discovered were Acidobacteria, Actinobacteriaand Verrucomicrobia.

The formation of metagenomic libraries using fosmid library become a method of choice for exploring environmental microbial communities that are difficult to culture and maintain. Under the domain Bacteria, the Actinobacteria is one of the most distributed phyla among the 30 major lineage including 5 subclasses www. According to Zhi et al. However, the recent actinomycetez showed that there are five new orders under Actinobacteria known as Nitriliruptorales Sorokin et al. In nature, Actinobacteria are also known as saprophyte soil inhabitants Naik et al.

Actinobacteria have a variety of morphologies, from rod-coccoid e. They also show various physiological and metabolic properties, such as the production of extracellular enzymes and a variety of secondary metabolites such as potent antimicrobial agents Lee et al. The member of genus Streptomyces species displayed rare development characteristics with the formation of aerial mycelium with spore Lee et al.

In common laboratory media, Actinobacteria tends to grow slowly as branching filaments and have the ability to produce motile spores Nanjwade et al. Actinobacteria can be divided into two main groups; the Streptomycesrepresenting the dominant species in the group; and the rare actinobacteria.

In their natural mangrovve, Streptomyces are the dominant species of Actinobacteria. Rare actinobacteria are relatively difficult to isolate, culture, and maintain; due to the difficulties in maintaining and mimicking their natural environment.

Mangrove rare actinobacteria: taxonomy, natural compound, and discovery of bioactivity

Rare actinobacteria have been considered as Actinobacteria with lower isolation rates compared to Streptomyces strains using conventional isolation methods, due to the requirement of using appropriate isolation procedures and to apply different selection conditions Khanna et al. Until Septemberthere are approximately genera of rare actinobacteria reported Tiwari and Gupta, More evidences have shown that increasing numbers of rare actinobacteria have been discovered from different sources, thus indicating that rare actinobacteria are widely distributed in the biospheres.


Even though soils and water are their major habitat, they are also isolated from different environments such as the deep protienss, desert, mangroves, plants, caves, volcanic rocks, and stones Groth et al. In natural ecosystems, many chemical, biological, and physical elements; affect their diversity as the environmental factors such as pH, humus content, soils type, temperature, and salinity affect their distribution Hayakawa, The isolation of rare actinobacteria could definitely increase the chances of discovering potentially novel bioactive compounds, therefore it is vital to be equipped with better knowledge actonomycetes their diversity and distribution in the environment; in order to facilitate the isolation of these strains using an efficient approach Hong et al.

According to Jose and Jebakumarrare actinobacteria are distributed among 24 genera: The mangrove ecosystem is among the world’s most productive environment, and it is a huge unexplored source of Actinobacteria with a high potential to produce active secondary metabolites Hong et al. Indeed relatively little is known about the rare actinobacteria living in the mangrove ecosystem.

Recently the mangrove ecosystem has become popular for novel strains and novel bioactive compound discovery. A few reports from different geographical locations globally have described the diversity and isolation of novel rare actinobacteria in different mangrove habitats.

In actinoomycetes, Eccleston et al. Different genera such as Brevibacterium, Dermabacter, Kytococcus, Microbacterium, Nesterenkoniaand Rothia were isolated from mangrove sediments in Brazil Dias et al.

In China, a number of rare actinobacteria including Actinomadura, Isoptericola, Microbispora, Nocardia, Nonomuraeaand Rhodococcus; were isolated from mangrove soils and plants Hong et al. Results from Ara et al.

Natural Products from Mangrove Actinomycetes

It is reported that the predominant genus detected was Micromonospora prtoiens both mangrove and medicinal plant rhizosphere soil samples in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

This result was in line with other studies Cross, ; Jiang and Xu, ; Hatano, ; Ara et al. A study done by Lee et al. The study also discovered other genera of rare actinobacteria, such as Leifsonia, Streptacidiphilus, Sinomonasand Terrabacterwhich were not commonly found in mangrove environment. Novel mangrove rare actinobacteria discovered between the years and The discovery of the first antibiotic, penicillin, in heralded the era of antibiotics.

Streptomycin was later isolated from Streptomyces griseus by Waksman inwhile vancomycin was discovered in as a metabolite of the rare actinobacteria strain, Amycolatopsis orientalis Mahajan and Balachandran, The discovery of various useful antibiotics from rare actinobacteria contributes as an important part protiesn the discovery of novel natural products Ara et al.

Researchers understand the role of microorganisms to provide rich sources of useful natural products for clinical purposes Subramani magrove Aalbersberg, The demand for new drugs in the protiiens is extremely urgent and extensive due to the fast spread of diseases, common ailments, and the fast spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens Jiang prottiens al.

The continuous advancement in science and technology would enable the accelerated discovery of useful bioactive compounds from prolific producers such as the Actinobacteria. Actinobacteria are able to produce different types of secondary metabolites due to the function of various genes such as the non-ribosomal polyketides synthase NRPS and polyketide synthase PKS Salomon et al. In spite of the tremendous success of the past in screening for useful secondary metabolites, the chance of finding new biologically active molecules from Streptomyces has decreased Fenical et al.

As some Streptomyces strains from different environments produced the same types of compounds, possibly due to frequent genetic exchange between species Bredholt et al. As a result, there is a dramatic increase in demand to look for new actinomycefes important actniomycetes. The advancement of new selective techniques enables the isolation and screening of rare actinobacteria, which could lead to the discovery of new and useful bioactive compounds.

The discovery of rare actinobacteria has enlarged the range and diversity of genetic resources available for biotechnological exploitation. It is apparent that the discovery of novel rare actinobacteria can be expected to provide new bioactive compounds Lazzarini et al. The review mainly focuses on five different genera with the species found from the mangrove environment namely, Micromonospora, Jishengella, Mangrkve, Saccharopolysporaand Nocardiopsis.

Proitens are all proven to have valuable sources of potential metabolites and besides Streptomyces ; they have proven to be valuable sources of potentially useful bioactive metabolites. Micromonospora is a genus of Actinobacteria from the Micromonosporaceae family.